Acoustic cameras consist of microphone arrays used to locate and characterize sounds. There are a variety of microphone array structures to support specific analysis needs. Some acoustic cameras also have an embedded visual camera to supply an image over which the acoustic localization information can be presented. Acoustic camera application examples range from analyzing noise […]
What are the types and uses of vibration sensors?
There’s a wide range of vibration sensor technologies, and each technology has unique performance characteristics that make it suited for a specific type of applications ranging from mobile devices to machine condition monitoring and automotive safety testing. This FAQ reviews vibration and accelerometer sensor technologies including charge mode versus voltage mode piezoelectric sensors, MEMS devices, […]
What are ten key parameters of audio system performance?
Ten key parameters of audio system performance include efficiency, frequency response, total harmonic distortion, intermodulation distortion, phase distortion, transient distortion, transient response, dynamic range, sound pressure level, and sound power level. This FAQ reviews how each of these parameters is specified and measured and closes with a look at how safe sound levels are specified […]
What are the subtleties of using accelerometers as vibration sensors?
Accelerometers are deceptively simple-looking devices but are complex electromechanical systems. But there are numerous mechanical, environmental, electronic, and application-related factors to consider when using accelerometers. This FAQ reviews several of the subtleties that need to be considered when using accelerometers as vibration sensors and closes with a look at the ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451-4:2010 standard for Transducer […]
When to use sound pressure and when to use sound intensity measurements
Sound pressure, sound intensity, and sound power are three different ways to quantify sound. This FAQ begins by defining each one, looks at various types of measurement techniques that can be used to quantify them, presents a range of international testing standards for measuring sound, looks at instruments used for measuring sound pressure and intensity, […]
How does the PICMG IoT.1 specification for smart IoT sensors work?
The PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturer’s Group (PICMG) is developing a series of specifications to enable plug-and-play interoperability of smart sensors and effectors. The effort includes the large installed base of legacy non-IoT (not IP-enabled) devices and newer IoT-enabled smart sensors. The PICMG program includes development of a family of three IoT specifications. PICMG IoT.1 is […]
What’s the difference between 2-, 3-, & 4-wire RDT sensing?
The difference is measurement accuracy. Using 2-wire resistance temperature detector (RTD) sensing provides good accuracy (maybe), the accuracy of 3-wire sensing is better, and 4-wire sensing provides the best accuracy. In addition, there’s the option of using Wheatstone bridge topologies to improve the performance of 2- and 3-wire RDTs. This FAQ begins with a review […]
What are the types and uses of position sensors?
Position sensing is a critical function across a wide range of applications, from robot drive chains to conveyor belts in supply chain operations to the swaying of wind turbine towers. It can take many forms, including linear, rotary, angular, absolute, incremental, contact, and non-contact sensors. Specialized sensors have been developed that can determine positions in […]
What are emerging sensor technologies for Agriculture 4.0?
Agriculture 4.0 is emerging and requires an expended sensor suite. Agriculture 4.0 refers to systems that employ drones, robotics, the Internet of Things (IoT), vertical farms, artificial intelligence (AI), renewable energy, and advanced sensor methodologies. Agriculture 4.0 is similar to Industry 4.0 in some ways: Where Industry 4.0 is designed to support automation and mass […]
What sensors are used in AR/VR systems?
A wide range of sensor technologies is required to support augmented reality and virtual reality (AR/VR) systems. Today’s AR/VR implementations are mostly focused on visual and audio interfaces and rely on motion tracking and listening/voice recognition sensors. That’s beginning to change with new types of sensors and various types of haptics being introduced. This FAQ […]